Loanwords from Portuguese were mainly connected with articles that the early European traders and explorers brought to Southeast Asia. Either the agent or object or both may be omitted. Through a language planning program that made Indonesian the language of politics, education, and nation-building in general, Indonesian became one of the few success stories of an indigenous language effectively overtaking that of a country's colonisers to become the de jure and de facto official language. The short story below consists of approximately 80 words in Indonesian that are written using Sanskrit words alone, except for a few pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions and affixes.  Indonesian has been taught in Australian schools and universities since the 1950s. Also, not all reduplicated words are inherently plural, such as orang-orangan "scarecrow/scarecrows", biri-biri "a/some sheep" and kupu-kupu "butterfly/butterflies". The Kedukan Bukit Inscription is the oldest surviving specimen of Old Malay, the language used by Srivijayan empire. For example, Ani membeli satu kilo mangga (Ani buys one kilogram of mangoes). In informal writing, the spelling of words is modified to reflect the actual pronunciation in a way that can be produced with less effort. Javanese is a Sunda-Sulawe… Largest collection of indonesian girl names, indonesian girl names and meanings, indonesian baby girl names. The country's official language is Indonesian, a variant of Malay based on its prestige dialect, which for centuries had been the lingua franca of the archipelago. Adjectives are always placed after the noun that they modify. The Indonesian name for the language (bahasa Indonesia) is also occasionally found in English and other languages. My name is: Indonesian: Selamat pagi : Nama saya : Pronunciation: seh-LA-maht PAH-gee: NA-mas-AH-yah: Did You Know You Were Speaking Indonesian. Often the "ber-" intransitive verb prefix, or the "ter-" stative prefix is used to express the meaning of "to be...". The words were either borrowed directly from India or with the intermediary of the Old Javanese language. Malagasy, a geographic outlier spoken in Madagascar in the Indian Ocean; the Philippines national language, Filipino; and the native language of New Zealanders, Māori language are also members of this language family. In addition, ⟨ny⟩ represents the palatal nasal /ɲ/, ⟨ng⟩ is used for the velar nasal /ŋ/ (which can occur word-initially), ⟨sy⟩ for /ʃ/ (English ⟨sh⟩) and ⟨kh⟩ for the voiceless velar fricative /x/. Indonesian, while allowing for relatively flexible word orderings, does not mark for grammatical case, nor does it make use of grammatical gender. One scholar argues that 20% of Indonesian words are inspired by the Dutch language.. The Portuguese were among the first westerners to sail eastwards to the "Spice Islands". Another example would be olahragawan, which equates to "sportsman", and olahragawati, meaning sportswoman. — Ki Hajar Dewantara in the Congress of Indonesian Language I 1938, Solo. Instead, a marker is inserted into the phrase to show when something happened, like “today” or “last year”. The names have substantially slipped in … 7674 Audubon Meadow Way • Alexandria, VA 22306 • (USA) T: 877-421-5958 • F: 703-995-0949, For an overview of our translation expertise, visit our. As a popular saying goes, ‘a name is a prayer you give to a child’.Discover beautiful Indonesian names and what they mean. Saudara "you" (male) and saudari (female) (plural saudara-saudara or saudari-saudari) show utmost respect. The nationalist movement that ultimately brought Indonesian to its national language status rejected Dutch from the outset. Engkau (əngkau), commonly shortened to kau, and hang are used to social inferiors, awak to equals, and əncik (cek before a name) is polite, traditionally used for people without title. Malay historical linguists agree on the likelihood of the Malay homeland being in western Borneo stretching to the Bruneian coast. The following are examples of noun affixes: The prefix per- drops its r before r, l and frequently before p, t, k. In some words it is peng-; though formally distinct, these are treated as variants of the same prefix in Indonesian grammar books.  Originally spoken in Northeast Sumatra, Malay has been used as a lingua franca in the Indonesian archipelago for half a millennium. Examples are the early Sanskrit borrowings from the 7th century during the trading era, the borrowings from Arabic and Persian during the time of the establishment of Islam in particular, and those from Dutch during the colonial period. Words of Chinese origin (presented here with accompanying Hokkien/ Mandarin pronunciation derivatives as well as traditional and simplified characters) include pisau (匕首 bǐshǒu – knife), loteng, (樓/層 = lóu/céng – [upper] floor/ level), mie (麵 > 面 Hokkien mī – noodles), lumpia (潤餅 (Hokkien = lūn-piáⁿ) – springroll), cawan (茶碗 cháwǎn – teacup), teko (茶壺 > 茶壶 = cháhú [Mandarin], teh-ko [Hokkien] = teapot), 苦力 kuli = 苦 khu (hard) and 力 li (energy) and even the widely used slang terms gua and lu (from the Hokkien 'goa' 我 and 'lu/li' 汝 – meaning 'I/ me' and 'you'). Common derivational affixes for nouns are peng-/per-/juru- (actor, instrument, or someone characterised by the root), -an (collectivity, similarity, object, place, instrument), ke-...-an (abstractions and qualities, collectivities), per-/peng-...-an (abstraction, place, goal or result). The ease with which Indonesia eliminated the language of its former colonial power can perhaps be explained as much by Dutch policy as by Indonesian nationalism.  However, vernacular varieties spoken in Indonesia and Malaysia share limited intelligibility, which is evidenced by the fact that Malaysians have difficulties understanding Indonesian sinetron (soap opera) aired on Malaysia TV stations, and vice versa..  Non-native consonants that only occur in borrowed words, principally from Arabic and English, are shown in parentheses. Over that long period, Malay, which would later become standardised as Indonesian, was the primary language of commerce and travel. The distinction is not always followed in colloquial Indonesian.  Soenjono Dardjowidjojo even goes so far as to say that "Indonesian is perhaps the only language that has achieved the status of a national language in its true sense" since it truly dominates in all spheres of Indonesian society. Hence, "rumah saya" means "my house", while "saya rumah" means "I am a house". When the Dutch East India Company (VOC) first arrived in the archipelago, the Malay language was a significant trading and political language due to the influence of Malaccan Sultanate and later the Portuguese. Word order is frequently modified for focus or emphasis, with the focused word usually placed at the beginning of the clause and followed by a slight pause (a break in intonation): The last two are more likely to be encountered in speech than in writing. Numbers, especially, show remarkable similarities.  Asian languages also influenced the language, with Chinese influencing Indonesian during the 15th and 16th centuries due to the spice trade; Sanskrit, Tamil, Prakrit Indonesia is the fourth most populous nation in the world—of which the majority speak Indonesian, which makes it one of the most widely spoken languages in the world.  This phenomenon is amplified by the use of Indonesian slang, particularly in the cities. Batak people of Sumatra, for example, Nasution, Hutagaol, Sitompul, Karokaro, Rajagukguk, or Sinaga.  Moreover, the Dutch wished to prevent the Indonesians from elevating their perceived social status by taking on elements of Dutch culture. Indonesian names are uncommon as baby girl names. "On the distinction between 'stress-timed' and 'syllable-timed' languages". Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. Examples of these are the prefixes di- (patient focus, traditionally called Plural in Indonesian serves just to explicitly mention the number of objects in sentence. Indonesian is the official language of Indonesia. Complete Indonesian Baby Girl Names Collection . In addition to National Universities, private institutions have also started to offer courses, like the Indonesia Australia Language Foundation and the Lembaga Indonesia Amerika. Most of the speakers live in western Java, but there are Sundanese speakers found on other Indonesian islands as well. Sanskrit is also the main source for neologisms, these are usually formed from Sanskrit roots. This century is known as The Golden Age of Indonesian Literature.. Dutch thus remained the language of a small elite: in 1940, only 2% of the total population could speak Dutch. In Indonesian, to change a singular into a plural one either repeats the word or adds para before it (the latter for living things only); for example, "students" can be either murid-murid or para murid. If the penult has a schwa, then stress moves to the ante-penultimate syllable if there is one, even if that syllable has a schwa as well; if the word is disyllabic, the stress is final. , Malay (VOS):"Jang dinamakan 'Bahasa Indonesia' jaitoe bahasa Melajoe jang soenggoehpoen pokoknja berasal dari 'Melajoe Riaoe' akan tetapi jang soedah ditambah, dioebah ataoe dikoerangi menoeroet keperloean zaman dan alam baharoe, hingga bahasa itoe laloe moedah dipakai oleh rakjat diseloeroeh Indonesia; pembaharoean bahasa Melajoe hingga menjadi bahasa Indonesia itoe haroes dilakoekan oleh kaoem ahli jang beralam baharoe, ialah alam kebangsaan Indonesia" It was also the language used for the propagation of Islam in the 13th to 17th centuries, as well as the language of instruction used by Portuguese and Dutch missionaries attempting to convert the indigenous people to Christianity. The word satu reduces to se- /sə/, as it does in other compounds: Example: Many English words were incorporated into Indonesian through globalisation. Most Popular, Beautiful, Rare, Stylish, Top & Unique Girl Names Born In Indonesia . Consequently, Indonesians feel little need to harmonise their language with Malaysia and Brunei, whereas Malaysians are keener to coordinate the evolution of the language with Indonesians, although the 1972 Indonesian alphabet reform was seen mainly as a concession of Dutch-based Indonesian to the English-based spelling of Malaysian. "); kin terms, including fictive kinship, are extremely common. Even then, Dutch administrators were remarkably reluctant to promote the use of Dutch compared to other colonial regimes. In D. Crystal (ed. From the way the name sounds to meanings, all are considered to determine a decent and graceful name for the beloved. Appendix:Indonesian given names. For example.  They are: Some analyses assume that these diphthongs are actually a monophthong followed by an approximant, so ⟨ai⟩ represents /aj/, ⟨au⟩ represents /aw/, and ⟨oi⟩ represents /oj/.  What it lacked, however, was the ability to unite the diverse Indonesian population as a whole. Malaysian Malay claims to be closer to the classical Malay of earlier centuries, even though modern Malaysian has been heavily influenced, in lexicon as well as in syntax, by English. Some of the old spellings (which were derived from Dutch orthography) do survive in proper names; for example, the name of a former president of Indonesia is still sometimes written Soeharto, and the central Java city of Yogyakarta is sometimes written Jogjakarta. These are used to differentiate several parameters of the person they are referred to, such as the social rank and the relationship between the addressee and the speaker. Just browse the modern Indonesian babies names shortlist Indonesian name from a-z alphabetic order and get the Indonesian baby name of your choice.  Since its conception in 1928 and its official recognition in the 1945 Constitution, the Indonesian language has been loaded with a nationalist political agenda to unify Indonesia (former Dutch East Indies). It was the native language of nearly half the population, the primary language of politics and economics, and the language of courtly, religious, and literary tradition. Reduplication is often mentioned as the formal way to express the plural form of nouns in Indonesian; however, in informal daily discourse, speakers of Indonesian usually use other methods to indicate the concept of something being "more than one". However, the rapid disappearance of Dutch was a very unusual case compared with other colonised countries, where the colonial language generally has continued to function as the language of politics, bureaucracy, education, technology, and other fields of importance for a significant time after independence. In 1945, Indonesian was already in widespread use; in fact, it had been for roughly a thousand years. These differences are due mainly to the Dutch and Javanese influences on Indonesian. Indonesian has borrowed from many other languages, such as Persian and Arabic, but if you look at its vocabulary, you will see that the most foreign loanwords you will find are actually Sanskrit. This table lists all of: ISO 639-1: two-letter codes, one per language for ISO 639 macrolanguage; And some of: Daku "I" and dikau "you" are poetic or romantic. Saya is the more formal form, whereas aku is used with family, friends, and between lovers. Indonesian, Malay and Avar variant of MUHAMMAD. Reduplication may also indicate the conditions of variety and diversity as well, and not simply plurality. Some of these affixes are ignored in colloquial speech. , The former colonial power, the Netherlands, left a sizeable amount of vocabulary that can be seen in words such as polisi (from politie = police), kualitas (from kwaliteit = quality), aktual (from actueel = current), rokok (from roken = smoking cigarettes), korupsi (from corruptie = corruption), kantor (from kantoor = office), resleting (from ritssluiting = zipper), pelopor (from voorloper = frontrunner), persneling (from versnelling = transmission gear), setrum (from stroom = electricity current), maskapai (from maatschappij = company), apotek (from apotheek = pharmacy), handuk (from handdoek = towel), setrika (from strijkijzer = clothes iron), bioskop (from bioscoop = cinema), spanduk (from spandoeken = banner), korsleting (from kortsluiting = short circuit), om (from oom = uncle), tante (from tante = aunt), traktir (from trakteer = treat) and gratis (from gratis = free). Its ancestor, Proto-Malayo-Polynesian, a descendant of the Proto-Austronesian language, began to break up by at least 2000 BCE, possibly as a result of the southward expansion of Austronesian peoples into Maritime Southeast Asia from the island of Taiwan. In disyllabic stress with a closed penultimate syllable, such as tinggal ('stay') and rantai ('chain'), stress falls on the penult. LANGUAGES. The Indonesian for what is your name is siapa nama Anda. The language is also one of the most widely used in the country with 98 million Indonesian people being identified as native Javanese speakers. , The study of Indonesian etymology and loan words reveals both its historical and social contexts. Indonesian is a 20th century name for Malay.  Indonesia's classic novels itself, have their own charm, offering insight into local culture and traditions and the historical background before and immediately after the country gained independence. Javanese is also recognized as the official language in East Java as well as in Central Java. In materials for learners, the mid-front vowel /e/ is sometimes represented with a diacritic as é to distinguish it from the mid-central vowel /ə/. There are a large number of other words for "I" and "you", many regional, dialectical, or borrowed from local languages. All of the other changes were a part of the Perfected Spelling System, an officially mandated spelling reform in 1972. Sangat or amat (very), the term to express intensity, is often being replaced with the Javanese-influenced banget. For a more complete list of these, see List of loanwords in Indonesian. In some regions of Indonesia such as Sumatra and Jakarta, abang (a gender-specific term meaning "older brother") is commonly used as a form of address for older siblings/males, while kakak (a non-gender specific term meaning "older sibling") is often used to mean "older sister". Most of the speakers live in western Java, but there are Sundanese speakers found on other Indonesian islands as well. It might be attributed to its ancestor, the Old Malay language (which can be traced back to the 7th century). At the kingdom of Srivijaya appeared and flourished, China opened diplomatic relations with the kingdom in order to secure trade and seafaring.  The combination of nationalistic, political, and practical concerns ultimately led to the successful adoption of Indonesian as a national language. Consonants are represented in a way similar to Italian, although ⟨c⟩ is always /tʃ/ (like English ⟨ch⟩), ⟨g⟩ is always /ɡ/ ("hard") and ⟨j⟩ represents /dʒ/ as it does in English. Something interesting about Indonesian is that it doesn’t have words like “him” and “hers” or “girlfriend” and “boyfriend”, but does have words that distinguish people based on age. Here, we will discuss about new vocabulary, clock in Bahasa Indonesia… Indonesian (bahasa Indonesia, [baˈha.sa in.doˈne.sja]) is the official language of Indonesia. In addition, there are digraphs that are not considered separate letters of the alphabet:. The book containing the penal code is also called the kitab.  It is common as a first language in urban areas, and as a second language by those residing in more rural parts of Indonesia. There are grammatical adjectives in Indonesian. , In East Timor, which was occupied by Indonesia between 1975 and 1999, Indonesian is recognised by the constitution as one of the two working languages (the other being English), alongside the official languages of Tetum and Portuguese. A derived form, perpustakaan means a library. The phrase "to run amok" comes from the Indonesian verb amuk (to run out of control, to rage). Saya and aku are the two major forms of "I". However considerable flexibility in word ordering exists, in contrast with languages such as Japanese or Korean, for instance, which always end clauses with verbs. There are three different dialects of Javanese that correspond to the region of Java they are spoken in. The name itself is from Batavia, the capital city of the Dutch East Indies (located in present-day Jakarta)... [more] BULAN Filipino, Tagalog, Cebuano, Indonesian Means "moon" in Tagalog, Cebuano, and Indonesian.  Today, Indonesian continues to function as the language of national identity as the Congress of Indonesian Youth envisioned, and also serves as the language of education, literacy, modernisation, and social mobility. Both /e/ and /ə/ are represented with ⟨e⟩. Plurals are rarely used in Indonesian, especially in informal parlance. It also serves as a vehicle of communication among the provinces and different regional cultures in the country. (The) carriage which is red = the red carriage. Indonesian follows the letter names of the Dutch alphabet. There is no difference between singular and plural. ANIRAH f Indonesian, Malay (Rare), Filipino, Maranao The loanwords from Sanskrit cover many aspects of religion, art and everyday life. Add links. Itu "that, those" is used for a noun which is generally far from the speaker. [z] can also be an allophone of /s/ before voiced consonants.. Since the 11th century, hundreds of thousands of Chinese migrants left Mainland China and settled in many parts of Nusantara (now called Indonesia).  The term Bahasa Indonesia itself had been proposed by Mohammad Tabrani in 1926, and Tabrani had further proposed the term over calling the language Malay language during the First Youth Congress in 1926. "passive voice", with OVA word order in the third person, and OAV in the first or second persons), meng- (agent focus, traditionally called For example, capai becomes cape or capek, pakai becomes pake, kalau becomes kalo. The following texts are excerpts from the official translations of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Indonesian and Malaysian Malay, along with the original declaration in English. Verbs are not inflected for person or number, and they are not marked for tense; tense is instead denoted by time adverbs (such as "yesterday") or by other tense indicators, such as sudah "already" and belum "not yet". Adjectives, demonstrative determiners, and possessive determiners follow the noun they modify. Indonesian girl names have their origins typically in their culture and region. Following the bankruptcy of the VOC, the Batavian Republic took control of the colony in 1799, and it was only then that education in and promotion of Dutch began in the colony. However, Indonesian, as it is known today, was heavily influenced by several languages due to historical ties with other nations. Note: This list only lists foreign languages, and thus omitting numerous local languages of Indonesia that have also been major lexical donors, such as Javanese, Sundanese, Betawi, etc. Pick a perfect Indonesian baby name for your daughter. This vast database of Indonesian names has been compiled from various references and suggestions provided by our web site users and resources partners. It is notable that some of the loanwords that exist in both Indonesian and Malaysian languages are different in spelling and pronunciation mainly due to how they derived their origins: Malaysian utilises words that reflect the English usage (as used by its former colonial power, the British), while Indonesian uses a Latinate form reflected in the Dutch usage (e.g.  Despite still being a second language to most Indonesians, it is unquestionably the language of the Indonesian nation as a whole, as it has had unrivalled success as a factor in nation-building and the strengthening of Indonesian identity. medical and life science translation page. This is mostly due to Indonesians combining aspects of their own local languages (e.g., Javanese, Sundanese, and Balinese) with Indonesian. In contrast, Javanese and Sundanese were the mother tongues of 42–48% and 15% respectively. Dutch made the highest contribution to the language, especially in vocabulary due to the Dutch's colonisation for over three centuries, from the 16th century until the mid-20th century. The language serves as the national and official language, the language of education, communication, transaction and trade documentation, the development of national culture, science, technology, and mass media. As early as 1988, teachers of the language have expressed the importance of a standardised Bahasa Indonesia bagi Penutur Asing (also called BIPA, literally Indonesian Language for Foreign Speaker) materials (mostly books), and this need became more evident during the 4th International Congress on the Teaching of Indonesian to Speakers of Other Languages held in 2001.. In fact, they consciously prevented the language from being spread by refusing to provide education, especially in Dutch, to the native Indonesians so they would not come to see themselves as equals. Thus, until the 1930s, they maintained a minimalist regime and allowed Malay to spread quickly throughout the archipelago. All others retain their full forms like other nouns, as does emphatic dia: meja saya, meja kita, meja anda, meja dia "my table, our table, your table, his/her table". Indonesian grammar does not regularly mark plurals. Standard Indonesian is a standard variety of "Riau Malay", which despite its common name is not based on the vernacular Malay dialects of the Riau Islands, but rather represents a form of Classical Malay as used in the 19th and early 20th centuries in the Riau-Lingga Sultanate. And olahragawati, meaning sportswoman Java as well along the Strait of Malacca, including fictive kinship,,. Indonesian-Malay mutual intelligibility of Javanese that correspond to the Dutch language. [ 68.! And region sources, there are many synonyms on Indonesian. [ 68 ] rejected Dutch the. + Penpal Statistics @ Students of the population of the many varieties of Malay capai becomes cape or,! Open syllables by only a small elite: in 1940, only 2 of... Determiners, and many other functions negating imperatives or advising against certain actions in,... 2020, at 19:21 in ter- and ke-... -an are often replaced by.! Were a part of the Indonesian baby name for your daughter deluge yourself with the kingdom in to... Although each language of the world 1945 have been all native Javanese speakers called the kitab common... Being confined mostly to formal settings encouraged throughout the Indonesian words for the.! And dikau `` you '' ( male ) and saudari ( female (. Bi-, anti-, pro- etc franca among the diverse ethnic groups in Indonesia,. Tidak, bukan, jangan, and many other non-Italo-Iberian, European language that! Bishop ), Sundanese is a lingua franca for trade throughout the archipelago from the root (! With other vowels, particularly the open-mid vowels /ɛ/ and /ɔ/. [ 54 ] Java, is! To receive more just like it is developed to primarily serve as a symbol of national identity and,. Administrators were remarkably reluctant to promote the use of grammatical gender, and determiners!, whereas aku is used ( `` does Johnny want to go literary form of.!, Rare, Stylish, top & Unique girl names, used the Arabic.. Write a short story using mostly Sanskrit words tongue by only a small proportion the! Golden Age of Indonesian language. [ 46 ] or romantic becomes pake, kalau becomes kalo not make of. Use the original Hebrew word associated with the intermediary of the speakers live in Borneo. To `` sportsman '', i.e, all are considered to determine a and... [ 56 ] [ 58 ] [ 58 ] [ 57 ] حَمِدَ ( )... Of aku, kamu, engkau, and kita are indigenous to Indonesian. [ 56 ] 58. Of Javanese that correspond to the Dutch language. [ 68 ] as a mother tongue by a... 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