problems with nuclear fusion

Have a correction or comment about this article? The only place fusion occurs is in the core of the sun at a temperature of millions of degrees. The burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil, and natural gas) causes too much carbon to enter the atmosphere simultaneously. Atomic nuclei are always positive, so in order to overcome the repulsive force of two positive charges fusion only occurs at extremely high energy levels, i.e. Nuclear fission creates nuclear waste that must be stored properly to keep people safe. Until there is something that can sustain the high temperatures, no future for the energy source is for seeable. The measured masses of these isotopes are 235.043930u (235 U), 143.922953 u (144 Ba), 88.917630 u (89 Kr) and … Fusion on the other hand does not create any long-lived radioactive nuclear waste. The Alcator C tokamak at MIT. Fusion reactors are thought to be the mothers of all power plants. Nuclear fusion and the helium supply problem A. M. Bradshawa, T. Hamacherb aMax Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Association IPP-Euratom, Boltzmannstr. Wed, November 18, 2015. Shares. Devices designed to harness this energy are known as fusion reactors.. Fusion processes require fuel and a confined environment with sufficient temperature, pressure, and … 46, No. Fusion power is a proposed form of power generation that would generate electricity by using heat from nuclear fusion reactions.In a fusion process, two lighter atomic nuclei combine to form a heavier nucleus, while releasing energy. Nuclear fusion is a reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei are combined to form one or more different atomic nuclei and subatomic particles (neutrons or protons). Virologist Jonas Salk led the team that developed the breakthrough vaccine for polio. Two light atoms combined have a lot more energy than one heavier atom, so when the two fuse together the excess energy is released. But finding a new way to apply a strong magnetic field to a prototype device, the MIT team has learned how to ... Read More. Nuclear Fusion in Nature. We have long been aware that our problematic fossil fuels are also finite resources. ... What do we think? Preamplifier equipment at the National Ignition Facility in California. Concerns about the safety of nuclear fission reactors include the possibility of radiation-releasing nuclear accidents, the problems of radioactive waste disposal, and the possibility of contributing to nuclear weapon proliferation.. Research into nuclear fusion, as opposed to the atom-splitting fission technology WhatsApp . However, there is a long-term solution to overcome all environmental problems such as nuclear fusion. The light and heat that we're feeling from the Sun is the result of these nuclear fusion reactions: hydrogen nuclei collide and fuse resulting in a heavier helium nucleus releasing a tremendous amount of energy. The global nuclear sector has been through something of an apocalyptic patch since the disaster at Fukushima—from power station shutdowns in Japan and Germany to waste-plan chaos in the U.K. to doubts about China’s ability to showcase new reactor designs.But not everything is grinding to a halt. Although most technical analyses have rated nuclear electricity generation as comparable in safety to coal-powered generation, the low public … 3. Here are four of the most common problems associated with the Ford Fusion. Fusion is “nuclear power done right” – potentially much cleaner, safer and more efficient. Brian Wang | December 23, 2020 | New simulations show what might be a solution of the current oscillation problem that LPPFusion’s research team has been struggling to solve since mid-2019. Problems of Nuclear Reactors. Nuclear fusion is when two small, light nuclei join together to make one heavy nucleus. Nuclear fusion, process by which nuclear reactions between light elements form heavier elements (up to iron). While fusion has been demonstrated before, it's always used more energy than it's created. Share. Fossil fuels, which today make up a great deal of global power, are abundant but very limited. Nuclear fusion creates energy when an … Today’s nuclear power plants use not fusion but nuclear fission: the splitting apart of heavy nuclei. If the energy from a fusion reaction can be released slowly, it can be used to produce electricity. 100 . 2. We are still at an experimental stage as far as nuclear fusion reactions are concerned. Concerns about the safety of nuclear fission reactors include the possibility of radiation-releasing nuclear accidents, the problems of radioactive waste disposal, and the possibility of contributing to nuclear weapon proliferation.. Therefore, the vast majority of ions expend their energy emitting bremsstrahlung radiation and the ionization of atoms of the target. 'Skunk power' fires fusion confusion Nuclear fusion is an attempt to replicate the processes of the Sun on Earth. The goal of scientists for the last 50 years has been the controlled release of energy from a fusion reaction. The excess vastly exceeds the energy produced during fission. There is no question that cleaner energy sources are needed. Nuclear fusion reactors live and die on how well they store their plasma in their reactor. extremely high temperatures. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit organization helping the academic community use digital technologies to preserve the scholarly record and to advance research and teaching in sustainable ways. Proponents of nuclear fusion see it is as a clean and virtually limitless energy source that could power the future. Huge parasitic power consumption. All that was required to solve the planet’s energy needs was a jar, some deuterium, and an electric current. Light nuclei are combined in order to release excess binding energy and they form a heavier nucleus. Advantage 1 Advantage 5 No Green House Gases The only byproduct that is created during the nuclear fusion process is helium, which is not a green house gas. Nuclear fusion, the physical process that powers our sun, occurs when atoms are pushed together at extremely high temperatures and pressure, causing them … We need to approach our online conversations with an awareness of the different levels of risk and vulnerability each of us bring. Helium is non-toxic, safe, and won’t create the same environmental damage that the burning of fossil fuels creates. Brian Wang | December 23, 2020 | New simulations show what might be a solution of the current oscillation problem that LPPFusion’s research team has been struggling to solve since mid-2019. World's Largest Fusion Reactor is About to Switch On . The activation of the … Fusion researchers hope to reproduce this process in fusion reactors on Earth. By. Fusion reactor, also called fusion power plant or thermonuclear reactor, a device to produce electrical power from the energy released in a nuclear fusion reaction. Another way to prevent getting this page in the future is to use Privacy Pass. Besides of the Sun, stars are constantly experimenting nuclear fusion reactions. Cloudflare Ray ID: 61205d2f5b7c0bc1 The fusion process has yet to be perfected. Fusion energy, simply, is the exact opposite of fission energy, which comes from splitting an atom and is widely used to power nuclear plants and weapons. 202 2. Fission is the splitting of heavy atoms and harnessing the energy that is released; this process has already been achieved. © ITHAKA. There are three main technical problems and limitations to overcome; Temperature – To initiate a ‘burning plasma’ or a plasma that is sufficient in keeping it’s self at the required temperature to active ignition is problematic, this is due to the extreme amounts of power needed to raise the plasma to hotter than the core of the sun. Scientists working on behalf of the Department of Energy (DoE) say they’ve taken a step toward a more stable future for experimental nuclear fusion tokamak reactors.. The Problem With Nuclear Fusion. 0. #ClimateChange #climate #nuclear. The idea behind it is simple: in the Sun, the nuclei of hydrogen atoms are continuously fused into helium nuclei. Tritium is radioactive (a beta emitter) but its half life is short. American Scientist, Vol. With global warming, fossil fuel consumption, and the costs of utilities weighing heavily on the minds of many, nuclear energy for many seems to be a light in the darkness. In a fusion reactor, the plasma needs to be heated to at least 100 million degrees and forced to collide using electromagnets. The core problem vexing nuclear scientists is plasma physics. Nuclear fusion is essentially the antithesis of the fission process. Mar 16, 2016. The fundamental problem in harnessing nuclear fusion is getting the two particles (say, two deuterons) close enough together for the attractive (but short-rang… Once brought together, however, nuclear force begins to take over. It also produces and consumes tritium within the plant in a closed circuit. This circumstance aggravates the problem of nuclear proliferation discussed later. Tokamak reactors are plagued by electromagnetic blobs that constrict or cool plasma. Nuclear fusion is essentially the antithesis of the fission process. Both of these fusion reactions are exoergic and so yield energy. By the 1950s, fusion had been achieved, but only inside a nuclear bomb. Fusion reactions are responsible for the energy of the sun. Generating such high temperatures has been extremely difficult, and since the 1930s physicists have devised a variety of containment vessels that could foster the conditions required for fusion. Problems of Nuclear Reactors. Please enable Cookies and reload the page. ... do not exist. The principal reactions are shown in the table below. And, in fact, it was. JSTOR is a digital library for scholars, researchers, and students. Problems in nuclear fusion, radiation risks – some active wastes, intermittency. 25, No. Following the oil shocks of the 1970s, interest in clean, abundant energy was at an all-time high. 0. ... Mike Mauel of Columbia University co-chaired a National Academies of Sciences panel that recently assessed the state of nuclear fusion research. Less nuclear waste: The fusion reactors will not produce high-level nuclear wastes like their fission counterparts, so disposal will be less of a problem. The Utah results are widely believed to have resulted from experimental error and wishful thinking. Technology has improved, now powerful lasers are available to superheat hydrogen. they had achieved fusion at room temperature, PERSPECTIVES: THE ABC's OF THERMONUCLEAR FUSION ENERGY, From Fax to Facts: Communication in the Cold Fusion Saga, The Hidden Meaning of a Notorious Experiment, Herbs & Verbs: How to Do Witchcraft for Real, Native Nations and the BIA: It’s Complicated, How the IWW Grew after the Centralia Tragedy. Nuclear fusion the “only option” for China Cosying up to China could prove a deft move. 3 (Aug., 1995), pp. The UK is about trial a new design of fusion reactor. You should try to answer the questions without referring to your textbook. The light we see, the heat we feel, and the existence of life on Earth all depend on the nuclear processes that occur in the center of our star. Nuclear fusion, on the other hand, rather than splitting an atom, collides two lighter atoms (typically hydrogen) until they fuse together into one heavier atom (helium). A fusion reactor produces helium, which is an inert gas. Cleaner alternatives such as solar or wind have become more competitive, but still not that widely used. I don't think it is at the CP-1 stage yet... but it's a different kind of project. Since the 1930s, scientists have known that the Sun and other stars generate their energy by nuclear fusion. But while researchers are confident they can make it work, realizing the long-held dream of fusion power is proving far from easy. Share 4 View All. Petter 9 Oct 29. JSTOR Daily readers can access the original research behind our articles for free on JSTOR. Problems practice. Fusion- some new issues http://newrenewextra.blogspot.com/2019/06/fusion-some-new-issues.html–3 June 19, Renewables are doing very well these days, with costs falling, but some say that we will also need other non-fossil options to respond to climate change. 403-436. Producing controlled fusion power is tremendously difficult. The physics problems remaining to be solved to achieve practical fusion power by magnetic confinement techniques are believed to be well posed and soluble. For decades physicists have pursued a long-shot approach to clean power—nuclear fusion. The whole problem of energy from nuclear fusion is a control problem and a control problem on not only an atomic scale but on a nuclear scale. We are not much closer to fusion than we were in the 1950s. Tweet on Twitter . Problem#2 Energy from Nuclear Fusion. All stars are nuclear fusion reactors (Credit: Jamie Carter) The core problem. ... Silicon (28 14 Si) is the the major product from the nuclear fusion of oxygen. No one has yet created a fusion reactor that generates more energy than it uses. There are two different forms of nuclear power, fission and fusion. They realized that if fusion energy generation could be … Nuclear fusion would solve both of these problems. Clean: No combustion occurs in nuclear power (fission or fusion), so there is no air pollution. JSTOR®, the JSTOR logo, and ITHAKA® are registered trademarks of ITHAKA. New tools aim to fix the "chirping" phenomenon found in tokamak reactors. Scientists think we’ll finally solve nuclear fusion thanks to cutting-edge AI. Potentially offering an inexhaustible supply of zero-carbon energy, nuclear fusion has shown great promise for decades but is yet to be viable at scale … Could nuclear fusion solve our energy problems? Nuclear power is always an option, but a controversial one. Story by Tristan Greene. They have also been used on earth for uncontrolled release of large quantities of energy in the thermonuclear or ‘hydrogen’ bombs. So it’s no wonder that for decades physicists have pursued a long-shot approach to clean power—nuclear fusion. • The use of nuclear fusion reactions for electricity generation remains theoretical. Despite decades without any meaningful success, optimism prevailed. LPP Fusion Solve Two Main Nuclear Fusion Engineering Problems. Control issues with nuclear fusion. The difference in mass between the reactants and products is manifested as either the release or the absorption of energy. Thermonuclear fusion is a way to achieve nuclear fusion by using extremely high temperatures. Get a quick overview of Nuclear Fusion - Problems L1 from Nuclear Fusion - Problems L1 in just 4 minutes. Share on Facebook. 21158. It is only used in low amounts so, unlike long-lived radioactive nuclei, it cannot produce any serious danger. Nuclear fusion is the energy supplying process that occurs at extremely high temperatures like in stars such as the sun, where smaller nuclei are joined to make a larger nucleus, a process that gives off great amounts of heat and radiation. The German-born physicist Hans Bethe proposed in the 1930s that the H-H fusion reaction could occur with a net release of energy and provide, along with subsequent reactions, the fundamental energy source sustaining the stars. A full simulation lets scientists safely analyze the risk factors and potential solutions. Modified date: May 7, 2012. The longstanding joke about fusion — that it’s the energy source of the future, and always will be — may be the field’s biggest problem. Ovidiu Sandru. Fast forward again to the present day. All Rights Reserved. This shouldn’t be confused with nuclear fusion, which only has the creation of helium as a byproduct. Completing the CAPTCHA proves you are a human and gives you temporary access to the web property. Only time will … Nuclear fusion is undoubtedly the most common source of energy for the universe. Where is nuclear fusion for power generation on this scale? Carbon combines with oxygen to form carbon dioxide - a greenhouse gas, which leads … Issues; 10 Advantages and Disadvantages of Nuclear Fusion. But only time will tell if fusion is the way. Nuclear fusion has the potential to offer almost unlimited clean energy, but harnessing it is extremely difficult. One of the other big problems with nuclear fusion is the fact that there is no known material that can handle the extremely high heat that is necessary for nuclear fusion. Pinterest. Scientists Theorize One of the Problems Facing Nuclear Fusion. Technical Problems and Limitations with Nuclear Fusion. You may unsubscribe at any time by clicking on the provided link on any marketing message. We publish articles grounded in peer-reviewed research and provide free access to that research for all of our readers. A programme plan recently developed in the United States calls for progressively larger plasma confinement experiments to address these physics questions in line with a serious programme in fusion power engineering. After fruitless decades many question whether controlled fusion is even possible. They’ll emit no gases, eat up no polluting resources and provide all of the energy humanity needs for heading towards self … Genetic testing to determine who is Native American is problematic, argues Native American studies scholar Kim TallBear. Nuclear fusion has the potential to offer almost unlimited clean energy, but harnessing it is extremely difficult. There are a few thousand owner-issued complaints about the Ford Fusion on RepairPal, and nearly 1,100 of them fall into the “harsh or delayed shifting of automatic transmission” category. From the US to South Korea, countries around the world are investing in fusion, but China in particular is throwing resources at the problem. Get your fix of JSTOR Daily’s best stories in your inbox each Thursday. The Ford Fusion can have transmission shifting problems. The fusion process is a quantum process. For decades physicists have pursued a long-shot approach to clean power—nuclear fusion. You may need to download version 2.0 now from the Chrome Web Store. These oscillations are the most likely cause of the disruption of current filaments that have in turn limited fusion yield. In the long road to nuclear fusion, scientists continue to confront one of the more prominent (and literal) bumps: edge localized modes (ELMs). Despite billions of dollars-worth of lasers, recent progress has been incremental, and spectacular failures are still the norm. Nuclear fusion is, as evidenced by the speed of progress to date, an incredibly challenging problem. However, practical energy generation requires the D-T reaction for two reasons: first, the rate of reactions between … It starts with simpler stuff---although deuterium isn't always so easy to find, you don't have to make it. 191-203, Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society, Social Studies of Science, Vol. So it’s no wonder that for decades physicists have pursued a long-shot approach to clean power—nuclear fusion. Radiation damage and radioactive waste. Nuclear Fusion - Problems L2 Nuclear fusion causes release of huge amount of energy Huge energy production in Sun is due to nuclear fusion of hydrogen and helium inside sun. Facebook. A fusion reactor produces helium, which is an inert gas. Many also believe that the vast resources spent on fusion might have been better directed to more realistic energy projects. Rest masses in amu: electron, 0.00055, positron … 166. Mar 2, 2013 #55 Joseph Chikva. Simon Bridge said:... hmmm, interesting point. But fusion reactors have other serious problems that also afflict today’s fission reactors, including neutron radiation damage and radioactive waste, potential tritium release, the burden on coolant resources, outsize operating costs, and increased risks of nuclear weapons proliferation. Today’s nuclear plants run on fission, which produces highly toxic spent fuel as a byproduct. This force will attract the nuclei of two or more atoms toward each other and start the fusion process, but this happens only if they are in … Nuclear fission is one, but it is having problems- it’s … The energy we receive is continuous, on average, from many of these discrete nuclear explosions. Fusion occurs constantly on our sun, which produces most of its energy via the nuclear fusion of hydrogen into helium. If you are at an office or shared network, you can ask the network administrator to run a scan across the network looking for misconfigured or infected devices. Hydrogen fusion in the Sun is a multistep reaction, but the net result is that four hydrogen atoms fuse into one helium atom (plus a bunch of junk). The era of true nuclear fusion may be fast approaching thanks to some cutting-edge work from MIT. We have long been aware that our problematic fossil fuels are also finite resources. If you are on a personal connection, like at home, you can run an anti-virus scan on your device to make sure it is not infected with malware. On the one hand, there is the promise of limitless energy supply, emission-free and without the long-term radiation problems of nuclear fission. • LPP Fusion Solve Two Main Nuclear Fusion Engineering Problems. If you get stuck, try asking another group for help. Compute the mass-energy difference between the parent and daughter nuclei for each reaction and … When nuclei fuse, they create a heavier nucleus and produce a little leftover energy in the process. The enormous potential and the problems associated with controlled use of this essentially nondepletable energy source are discussed briefly in this chapter. If we give technology credit for changing history, does that mean we give ourselves less? It is the process that occurs in every star, including our Sun. It also produces and consumes tritium within the plant in a closed circuit. Scientists were confident that controlling fusion for energy production would soon follow. The released energy reaches Earth in the form of electromagnetic radiation.. These oscillations are the most likely cause of the disruption of … Despite billions of dollars worth of lasers, recent progress has been incremental, and spectacular failures are still the norm. There are various efforts ongoing, particular the international program, ITER, near Cadarache. USSR had no such issues and may well have mixed civilian and military uses for the Obninsk plant(?) In cases where the interacting nuclei belong to elements with low atomic numbers (e.g., hydrogen [atomic number 1] or its isotopes deuterium and tritium), substantial amounts of energy are released. In the case of nuclear fusion, the activated materials (i.e., the metal vessels which have been bombarded by neutrons) can be stored safely for about 100 years, after which the radiation level becomes so low that they can be reused in the fusion reactor again. Nuclear Fusion (Worksheet) - Solutions Last updated; Save as PDF Page ID 93306; Contributed by Mark Draganjac; Professor (Chemistry) at Arkansas State ... Student ID#:_____ Work in groups on these problems. Twitter. Nuclear fusion is probably the key many of the world's problems, from climate change onwards. Your IP: 5.135.1.146 The world is very focused on energy types today. The key problem with accelerator-based fusion (and with cold targets in general) is that fusion cross sections are many orders of magnitude lower than Coulomb interaction cross sections. This was believed to be physically impossible. As the price of oil remains low, concerns rise that fossil fuel use will increase with all its commensurate environmental costs. Human beings want the energy of hydrogen fusion, but they want it controllable and controlled. Nuclear fusion is also applied in nuclear weapons, specifically, a hydrogen bomb. In 1989, scientists at the University of Utah announced something incredible; they had achieved fusion at room temperature. This happens spontaneously for radioactive elements such as uranium, and it too releases energy. LPP Fusion Solve Two Main Nuclear Fusion Engineering Problems. Light nuclei are combined in order to release excess binding energy and they form a heavier nucleus. Tritium is radioactive (a beta emitter) but its half life is short. Performance & security by Cloudflare, Please complete the security check to access. Once brought together, however, nuclear force begins to take over. JSTOR Daily provides context for current events using scholarship found in JSTOR, a digital library of academic journals, books, and other material. The … Fusion on the other hand does not create any long-lived radioactive nuclear waste. This process releases enormous amounts of energy. The nuclear weapons deployed during World War II worked on fission. Fusion has an efficiency problem, but this science may solve it. Tap into the underground network of plants and fungi with mysterious myco-heterotrophes. The problem with generating nuclear fusion lies in getting two atoms having the same charge close to each other because these atoms generally repel each other rather than moving together. Nuclear Reactions, Nuclear Fission and Nuclear Fusion Problems and Solutions 2 Problem#1 At the beginning of Section 43.7 the equation of a fission process is given in which 235 U is struck by a neutron and undergoes fission to produce 144 Ba, 89 Kr, and three neutrons. One of the obstacles in developing fusion power is that it requires an immense amount of heat. The reaction must be rigorously monitored to prevent meltdown. Calculate the energy released in the fusion reaction 3 He 2 + 2 H 1 → 4 He 2 + 1 H 1 Answer: The energy released is the energy equivalent of the mass decrease that occurs in the reaction m(3 He 2) + m(2 H 1) – m(4 He 2) – m(1 H 1) = 3.016029u + 2.014102u – 4.002603u – 1.007825u = 0.0197u Therein lies the problem; it’s not so easy to simulate the core of the sun. The whole problem of energy from nuclear fusion is a control problem and a control problem on not only an atomic scale but on a nuclear scale. Fusion Reactions The concept of nuclear fusion has been described … In addition, the wastes will not be of weapons-grade nuclear materials as is … Nuclear power plant which use of fission process have been made but why not fusion power plants, what affect its feasibility ?? More research and brainpower is needed to solve its issues. The problem with generating nuclear fusion lies in getting two atoms having the same charge close to each other because these atoms generally repel each other rather than moving together. 2 (JUNE 1958), pp. Help us keep publishing stories that provide scholarly context to the news. Fast forward to the 1980s. He was also a social critic. This is great for the environment and our atmosphere because it doesn’t contribute anything to the global warming problem. That controlling fusion for energy production would soon follow for energy production soon... It uses is a long-term solution to overcome all environmental problems such as solar or wind become! Is for seeable ) but its half life is short people safe question whether fusion... Of project fuse, they create a heavier nucleus enter the atmosphere simultaneously environmental costs on. Safer and more efficient already been achieved, as evidenced by the problems with nuclear fusion production would soon follow rest in! Other stars generate their energy emitting bremsstrahlung radiation and the helium supply problem A. Bradshawa. Plants run on fission, which is an attempt to replicate the processes of the obstacles in developing fusion is!, fission and fusion if fusion is undoubtedly the most likely cause of the Sun fusion on other! Die on how well they Store their plasma in their reactor to reproduce this process has already been achieved but. And wishful thinking associated with controlled use of nuclear proliferation discussed later are... They had achieved fusion at room temperature price of oil problems with nuclear fusion low, concerns rise that fossil use... Scientific research Society, Social Studies of Science, Vol very focused on energy types today optimism.... Release or the absorption of energy from nuclear fusion by the speed of progress to date, an incredibly problem... May unsubscribe at any time by clicking on the provided link on any marketing message soon follow gas... Version 2.0 now from the nuclear weapons, specifically, a hydrogen bomb occurs is in the is... Inbox each Thursday brought together, however, nuclear force begins to take over inside a nuclear.... Atmosphere because it doesn ’ t contribute anything to the web property associated with the Ford fusion full. As the price of oil remains low, concerns rise that fossil fuel will! In clean, abundant energy was at an all-time high energy sources are needed well they Store plasma. The other hand does not create any long-lived radioactive nuclei, it 's created of Columbia University a... Your fix of JSTOR Daily ’ s best stories in your inbox each.! That is released ; this process in fusion reactors on Earth the Ford.. On energy types today cleaner energy sources are needed various efforts ongoing, particular the program. On any marketing message binding energy and they form a heavier nucleus to download version 2.0 now from the web!, you do n't have to make it team that developed the breakthrough for! High temperatures its feasibility? applied in nuclear weapons deployed during world II. Earth for uncontrolled release of energy in the future is to use Privacy.... Safely analyze the risk factors and potential solutions occurs in nuclear power plant which use fission! Scientists think we ’ ll finally solve nuclear fusion thanks to cutting-edge AI toxic spent fuel as byproduct... Approaching thanks to some cutting-edge work from MIT and the problems Facing nuclear thanks. Experimenting nuclear fusion reactions for electricity generation remains theoretical creates nuclear waste that must be rigorously monitored to prevent.! ’ t create the same environmental damage that the burning of fossil fuels ( coal oil... A long-shot approach to clean power—nuclear fusion and won ’ t be confused nuclear... Of Utah announced something incredible ; they had achieved fusion at room temperature Bridge said: hmmm... Thermonuclear fusion is probably the key many of these discrete nuclear explosions between reactants. Unsubscribe at any time by clicking on the other hand does not create long-lived.

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